Ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) updates and resources for integrative healthcare professionals

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Vaccination and Treatment Tracking

Scientist around the world are racing to produce a safe an effective COVID-19 vaccine. There are currently over 100 vaccine programs underway, with 44 vaccines in clinical trials on humans and more than 90 preclinical vaccines being tested in animals.

Vaccines typically require years of research and testing, including preclinical testing and multiple safety and efficacy trials before approval. The preclinical phase includes testing a new vaccine on cells and animals such as mice to see if it produces an immune response. Phase 1 assesses its safety in healthy people, phase 2 observes its effect on different cohorts of healthy people, and phase 3 monitors safety and efficacy on a larger scale. The final stage is approval, in which federal regulatory agencies review trial results and determine it is approved or not.

The following is a list of potential COVID-19 vaccines currently in the preclinical and clinical trial process.

Approved

No COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use in the U.S. at this time, though some are approved for limited use.

Phase 3

  • Moderna and National Institutes of Health messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine
  • CanSino Biologics and Academy of Military Medical Sciences adenovirus (Ad5) vaccine (approved for limited use)
  • Gamaleya Research Institute Gam-Covid-Vac vaccine (approved for limited use)
  • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Johnson & Johnson Adenovirus 26 vaccine (PAUSED)
  • Novavax protein-based vaccine
  • Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Sinopharm inactivated virus vaccine (approved for limited use)
  • Sinopharm and Beijing Institute of Biological Products inactivated virus vaccine (approved for limited use)
  • Sinovac Biotech inactivated vaccine (approved for limited use)
  • Murdoch Children’s Research Institute vaccine

Phase 2

  • BioNTech, Pfizer, and Fosun Pharma mRNA vaccine (combined phases 2 and 3)
  • Zydus Cadila DNA-based vaccine
  • CureVac mRNA vaccine
  • AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford (combined phases 2 and 3)
  • Anhui Zhifei Longcom and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences viral proteins vaccine
  • Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences vaccine
  • Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Virology, and Bharat Biotech vaccine

Phase 1

  • Imperial College London and Morningside Ventures “self-amplifying” RNA vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • AnGes, Osaka University, and Takara Bio DNA-based vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School mRNA vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • Inovio DNA-based vaccine
  • Genexine DNA-based vaccine
  • Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology mRNA vaccine
  • Chulalongkorn University Chula Vaccine Research Center mRNA vaccine
  • ReiThera and Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases
  • Vaxart oral vaccine
  • Merck, Themis Bioscience, and Institut Pasteur vaccine
  • University of Hong Kong, Xiamen University, and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy nasal spray vaccine
  • German Center for Infection Research Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine
  • Merck and IAVI viral vector vaccine
  • Finlay Vaccine Institute spike protein vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • Vector Institute vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • Sanofi and GSK mRNA vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • SpyBiotech vaccine (combined phases 1 and 2)
  • Clover Biopharmaceuticals, GSK, and Dynavax spike protein vaccine
  • University of Queensland and CSL vaccine
  • Medicago, GSK, and Dynavax tobacco-based vaccine
  • Vaxine viral proteins vaccine
  • Kentucky BioProcessing tobacco-based vaccine
  • Medigen and Dynavax spike protein vaccine
  • Adimmune spike protein vaccine
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University spike protein vaccine
  • COVAXX viral protein vaccine
  • University of Tùˆbingen viral protein vaccine
  • North Korea’s State Commission of Science and Technology vaccine
  • Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems vaccine

Preclinical  

  • Sanofi and Translate Bio mRNA vaccine genetic vaccine
  • Applied DNA Sciences genetic vaccine genetic vaccine
  • EvviVax and Takis Biotech genetic vaccine
  • DIOSynVax genetic vaccine
  • Elixirgen Therapeutics genetic vaccine
  • Entos Pharmaceuticals genetic vaccine
  • ETheRNA genetic vaccine
  • Infectious Disease Research Institute and Amyris genetic vaccine
  • Mediphage Bioceuticals genetic vaccine
  • OPENCORONA Consortia genetic vaccine
  • Scancell genetic vaccine
  • Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council genetic vaccine
  • Novartis gene therapy treatment
  • Altimmune viral vector vaccine
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai viral vector vaccine
  • Intravacc viral vector vaccine
  • Israel Institute for Biological Research viral vector vaccine
  • KU Leuven viral vector vaccine
  • Meissa Vaccines viral vector vaccine
  • NantKwest viral vector vaccine
  • Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council viral vector vaccine
  • Thomas Jefferson University and Bharat Biotechnology viral vector vaccine
  • Tonix Pharmaceuticals viral vector vaccine
  • University of Pittsburgh viral vector vaccine
  • Vivaldi Biosciences viral vector vaccine
  • Washington University viral vector vaccine
  • Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital vaccine
  • University of Pittsburgh skin patch vaccine
  • Adaptive Phage Therapeutics protein-based vaccine
  • AdaptVac and Bavarian Nordic protein-based vaccine
  • Applied Biotechnology Institute protein-based vaccine
  • Artes Biotech protein-based vaccine
  • Axon Neuroscience protein-based vaccine
  • BiOMVis and University of Trento protein-based vaccine
  • City College of New York and TechnoVax protein-based vaccine
  • EpiVax protein-based vaccine
  • GeoVax protein-based vaccine
  • Heat Biologics protein-based vaccine
  • IBio and CC-Pharming protein-based vaccine
  • Icosavax and University of Washington protein-based vaccine
  • ImmunoPrecise Antibodies protein-based vaccine
  • IMV protein-based vaccine
  • Instituto Butantan protein-based vaccine
  • Intravacc protein-based vaccine
  • IrsiCaixa protein-based vaccine
  • Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center protein-based vaccine
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico protein-based vaccine
  • Navarrabiomed protein-based vaccine
  • NidoVax protein-based vaccine
  • OncoGen protein-based vaccine
  • Oragenics protein-based vaccine
  • OSE Immunotherapeutics protein-based vaccine
  • Osivax protein-based vaccine
  • PDS Biotechnology protein-based vaccine
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile protein-based vaccine
  • Saiba protein-based vaccine
  • SK Bioscience protein-based vaccine
  • Symvivo protein-based vaccine
  • University of Alberta protein-based vaccine
  • University of Georgia and EpiVax protein-based vaccine
  • University of Saskatchewan and VIDO-InterVac protein-based vaccine
  • University of Virginia protein-based vaccine
  • UNSAM-CONICET protein-based vaccine
  • Vaxform protein-based vaccine
  • Vaxil-Bio protein-based vaccine
  • VBI Vaccines protein-based vaccine
  • Verndari protein-based vaccine
  • VIDO-InterVac protein-based vaccine
  • Voltron Therapeutics protein-based vaccine
  • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research protein-based vaccine
  • Wyss Institute and Harvard University protein-based vaccine
  • Yisheng Biopharma protein-based vaccine
  • Chumakov Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Codagenix
  • Valneva
  • Vivaldi Biosciences
  • Washington University
  • Western University

Click here to track COVID-19 vaccine development in real time.

Treatments

There is no known cure yet for COVID-19, though the FDA has granted emergency use authorization for some treatments. However, further trials are needed to demonstrate widespread safety and effectiveness.

The following is a list of treatments and interventions currently under clinical investigation in order from most promising to least promising:

  • Remdesivir
  • Dexamethasone and corticosteroids
  • Favipiravir
  • MK-4482
  • Recombinant ACE-2
  • Ivermectin
  • Oleandrin
  • Convalescent plasma
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Interferons
  • Cytokine inhibitors
  • Blood filtration systems
  • Stem cells
  • Anticoagulants
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc

Other supportive treatments to help patients with COVID-19 include prone positioning and ventilators and other respiratory support devices.

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