Researchers call for improved nutrition education in medical curriculum

Worldwide, nutrition is insufficiently incorporated into medical education, meaning that medical students lack the confidence, skills and knowledge to provide nutritional care to patients, according to a new study published in The Lancet Planetary Health.

The review included 24 studies conducted between 2012-18, including 16 quantitative, three qualitative, and five studies on curriculum initiatives. The studies came from the United States, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Australasia, and the methodological quality of the studies ranged from very low to high. No published articles from Asia met the criteria for inclusion in the review.

To give a broad overview of nutrition education provided to medical students, the review looked at studies assessing recently graduated or current medical students' nutrition knowledge, attitudes, skills, or confidence in nutrition or nutrition counselling; the quality of nutrition curriculum initiatives for medical students; or recently graduated or current medical students' perceptions of nutrition education.

The reviewed studies consistently found that medical students wanted to receive nutrition education to develop their skills in nutrition care but perceived that their education did not equip them to do so. Students cited both quantity and quality of their education as reasons for this, specifically poor quality and under-prioritization of nutrition in the curriculum, lack of interest and expertise in nutrition among faculty members, and few examples of nutritional counselling during clinical years to serve as models for emerging doctors.

Furthermore, students uniformly reported having a lack of required nutrition knowledge, which was also found through testing. For instance, one study found that when nutrition knowledge was assessed in a test, half of medical students scored below the pass rate.

The authors recommend that nutrition education be made compulsory for all medical students, a global benchmark on the required level of nutrition knowledge for future doctors be established, and more funding be put towards developing new ways to teach nutrition in medical school.

Five studies assessing curriculum initiatives found that they had a modest positive effect. However, most nutrition initiatives were employed opportunistically as a once-off activity, rather than being integrated in a sustained way into the medical curricula. Innovative initiatives, such as online curriculum, hands-on cooking experiences, and learning from other health professionals such as dietitians, showed short-term and long-term benefits for patients and health systems. Therefore, the authors call for more funding for innovative curriculum initiatives to be developed and implemented.

The authors underline that ongoing inadequate nutrition education identified in their study is likely to affect the standard of care doctors are providing to patients, not least in preventative care. Therefore, they stress the importance of institutional commitments to making nutrition education compulsory in medical training through accreditation standards and establishing benchmarks of nutritional knowledge needed by doctors before graduation.

The authors note some limitations of their study. The most frequent limitations of the studies included in the review were the absence of control groups for the curriculum initiatives, absence of validated survey instruments to test nutritional knowledge, poor response rates, small study samples, and insufficient representativeness of the study population.