Tables for “An A to Z Primer on Botanicals and Supplements for Prostate Health”.

Table 1.  Definitions and Common Tests Utilized in Detection and Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer                               

 Term  Definition

Prostate

-a male-specific gland of the reproductive system, approximately the size of a walnut.  Its main function is to produce part of the fluid for semen

 

digital rectal exam (DRE)

-an exam of prostate via the rectum in order to feel for abnormal changes (e.g.: size, lumps)

prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test

-a blood test that measures the level of PSA in the blood. While PSA is not an exact indicator of prostate cancer, it has been found to be increased in the blood of men who have CaP
[other potential causes for elevated  PSA levels can include: infection, inflammation, benign enlargement of the prostate (BPH)

Biopsy

-the removal of tissue or cells so they may be examined microscopically

Gleason score

-a number from 2-10 which describes the biopsy tissue. The lower the Gleason score, the less aggressive the tumor

Table 2.  Definitions of Prostate-Related Conditions

Prostatitis

-any inflammation of the prostate

-categorized as acute bacterial, chronic bacterial, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

-the medical term for having a non-cancerous enlarged prostate

Table 3:  List of Common Herbal and Nutritional Products for Prostate Health from A-Z

 Botanical/Supplement  Comment

Arginine

-potential antioxidant and cardioprotective

-sparse preliminary pre-clinical and clinical data

Beta-sitosterol

-a polyphenolic compound present in a variety of herbs for prostate health including saw palmetto and pygeum

-preclinical efficacy against CaP cell lines

-some clinical efficacy for LUTS symptoms in BPH

Vitamin D

-weak association between supplementation and increased risk of CaP

-promising preclinical and clinical testing of vitamin D analogs and ligand receptors

Vitamin E

-potential long-term risk in patients with vascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus

-large-scale chemoprevention trial underway for CaP chemoprevention

Fish oils

-potential antioxidant and cardio-protective

-preclinical inhibitory activity in CaP cell lines

-ongoing, non-conclusive clinical data

Garlic

-potential antioxidant and cardio-protective

-very preliminary investigations on its role in CaP chemoprevention

Ginger

-known digestive system regulator and potential anti-inflammatory activity

-preliminary investigations on its role in CaP chemoprevention

Green Tea

-good preclinical efficacy in vitro

-large-scale clinical trials underway

Isoflavones

– good preclinical efficacy in vitro

-ongoing preclinical and clinical trials underway

Lycopene

-preliminary preclinical data

-ongoing preclinical and clinical trials underway

Pomegranate

-potential antioxidant and cardio-protective

-preliminary investigations into its potential role in CaP chemoprevention and protective use following prostate cancer treatment

Pygeum

-contains beta-sitosterol

-weak clinical evidence for LUTS symptoms in BPH

-preliminary investigations on its role in CaP chemoprevention

Resveratrol

-potential antioxidant and cardio-protective

-preclinical inhibitory activity in CaP cell lines

-ongoing, non-conclusive clinical data

Saw Palmetto

-contains beta-sitosterol

-weak evidence for 5-α reductase inhibitory activity

-some clinical efficacy for LUTS symptoms in BPH

– preliminary investigations on its role in CaP chemoprevention

Turmeric (curcumin)

– good preclinical efficacy in vitro

-ongoing preclinical and clinical trials underway

Zinc

-controversy regarding chemopreventive potential

-potential prognostic indicator coupled with PSA

-decreased efficacy of  bisphosphonates and quinilone antibiotics when used concomitantly

BPH=benign prostatic hyperplasia  CaP= prostate cancer  LUTS=lower urinary tract symptoms  PSA=prostate specific antigen

Source document: An A to Z Primer on Botanicals and Supplements for Prostate Health